HTML encoding is the process of converting special characters to their equivalent HTML entities. HTML entities are special codes that represent special characters in HTML, such as "<" for the less-than symbol "<", and "&" for the ampersand "&".
We then create a new textarea element in the document and set its textContent property to the original text. This ensures that any special characters in the text are automatically encoded. Finally, we retrieve the innerHTML property of the textarea element, which contains the encoded text.
Note that some characters do not need to be encoded in HTML, such as letters and numbers. However, it's a good practice to encode all special characters to ensure proper rendering of the HTML page.